Ray-finned fishes (Lat. Actinopterygii)
Perch-likes (Lat. Perciformes)
Spadefishes, batfishes and scats (Lat. Ephippidae)
50 cm TL
Reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 5–30 m.
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa and Persian Gulf to the Tuamoto Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia.
Juveniles occur singly or in small groups among mangroves and inner sheltered lagoons while adults move out to open waters over sandy areas of deep lagoons, channels, and seaward reefs to a depth of at least 30 m. Feed on algae, invertebrates and small fishes.